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FREEBSD安装中文桌面的过程

FreeBSD 7.0-RELEASE-i386

CD安装Xorg、KDE(速度快)
# sysinstall
Configuration->packages->选择cd->进入x11->找xorg->选中->install
Configuration->packages->选择cd->进入KDE->找kde->选中->install
(选择FTP也可以)
或者编译安装Xorg、KDE(速度慢)
# cd /usr/ports/x11/xorg && make OPTIONS=NO install clean
# cd /usr/ports/x11/kde3 && make OPTIONS=NO install clean
(约20----30小时,期间可能有错误停止编译)

或者使用
# pkg_add -r xorg
# pkg_add -r kde3
(速度比较快)
不配置/etc/X11/xorg.conf,使用系统自动配置
要自己配置的话:
# Xorg -configure
# Xorg -config xorg.conf.new
# cp xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf
# startx
测试,Ctrl+Alt+Backspace退出X

安装中文环境
# cd /usr/ports/chinese/kcfonts && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/chinese/arphicttf && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/chinese/kde3-i18n-zh_CN && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/chinese/koffice-i18n-zh_CN && make install clean
如果您想要有Windows的字体,可以到将Win上面的字体COPY到下面的目录
# cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType

安装FireFox:
# cd /usr/ports/www/firefox3 && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/www/firefox3-i18n && make install clean
在地址栏输入about:config,搜索general.useragent.locale,改为zh-CN
出错处理:
# cd /usr/ports/devel/glib20 && make OPTIONS=NO FORCE_PKG_REGISTER=YES install clean
(http://unix.derkeiler.com/Mailing-Lists/FreeBSD/questions/2008-10/msg01701.html)
# cd /usr/ports/x11/pixman && make OPTIONS=NO FORCE_PKG_REGISTER=YES install clean
# cd /usr/ports/graphics/cairo && make OPTIONS=NO FORCE_PKG_REGISTER=YES install clean
(http://www.nabble.com/CALL-FOR-TEST:-Updates-to-pixmap,-cairo,-poppler,-and-firefox-3.0!-td17960163.html)
安装聊天工具 gaim
# cd /usr/ports/net-im/pidgin && make install clean

中文输入法安装:
# cd /usr/ports/chinese/scim-tables/ && make install clean #五笔
# cd /usr/ports/chinese/scim-pinyin/ && make install clean #拼音
# ee ~/.cshrc
setenv LANG zh_CN.eucCN
setenv LC_CTYPE zh_CN.eucCN
setenv XMODIFIERS @im=SCIM
setenv GTK_IM_MODULE scim
# echo "exec /usr/local/bin/scim &" >> ~/.xinitrc
# echo "exec /usr/local/bin/startkde" >> ~/.xinitrc
# startx

进入KDE。
找到Setting->Desktop Setting Wizard选择中文。
然后打开"控制中心"->外观和主题->字体,里面设置你所需要的中文字体和字体大小。强制字体DPI越大字越大。
打开FireFox,打开about:config,搜索layout.css.dpi,设置dpi为0,-1为FireFox默认的DPI,0为KDE系统DPI。

备注:安装过程如有软件版本冲突,安装命令加FORCE_PKG_REGISTER=YES强行安装

# cat /etc/X11/xorg.conf
Section "ServerLayout"
Identifier "X.org Configured"
Screen 0 "Screen0" 0 0
InputDevice "Mouse0" "CorePointer"
InputDevice "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
EndSection

Section "Files"
RgbPath "/usr/local/share/X11/rgb"
ModulePath "/usr/local/lib/xorg/modules"
FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/misc/"
FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/TTF/"
FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/OTF"
FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/Type1/"
FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/"
FontPath "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/"
EndSection

Section "Module"
Load "GLcore"
Load "dbe"
Load "dri"
Load "extmod"
Load "glx"
Load "record"
Load "xtrap"
Load "freetype"
Load "type1"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Keyboard0"
Driver "kbd"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Mouse0"
Driver "mouse"
Option "Protocol" "auto"
#Option "Device" "/dev/sysmouse"
Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5 6 7"
EndSection

Section "Monitor"
Identifier "Monitor0"
VendorName "Monitor Vendor"
ModelName "Monitor Model"
EndSection

Section "Device"
Identifier "Card0"
Driver "vesa"
VendorName "Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS]"
BoardName "661/741/760 PCI/AGP or 662/761Gx PCIE VGA Display Adapter"
BusID "PCI:1:0:0"
EndSection

Section "Screen"
Identifier "Screen0"
Device "Card0"
Monitor "Monitor0"
DefaultDepth 24
SubSection "Display"
Viewport 0 0
Depth 24
Modes "1024x768" "800x600"
EndSubSection
EndSection


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FREEBSD常用命令

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FreeBSD 7.0-RELEASE-i386

删除Thumbs.db文件
find ./ -name "*.db" -delete

显示所有没有被注释的
# cat file | grep -v '^#'

搜索PORTS软件
# whereis XXXX

系统情况
top
vmstat -s
lmmon -i
mbmon
xmbmon

自定义pkg_add安装的服务器
setenv PACKAGEROOT ftp://ftp.cn.freebsd.org

Port 的相关命令
生成配置文件
make config
删除配置文件
make rmconfig
抓取源码包
make fetch
抓取所有源码包(包括需要到的所有包)
make fetch-recursive
校验源码包
make checksum
编译、安装并删除临时文件
make install clean
编译、安装、将所有需要的port打包、安装、并删除临时文件
make depends_target=package package clean
mkdir -p /usr/ports/packages/All/
生成的package会自动放到里面,否则放在port的当前目录
仅解开源码包
make extract
仅解开并打上patch
make patch
删除临时文件及源码包
make distclean
查询port的依赖关系
make all-depends-list #显示所有相关的套件
make pretty-print-build-depends-list
#显示编译期间所需要的套件
make pretty-print-run-depends-list
#显示此套件要执行时所需要的套件
删除已经安装的port
make deinstall
删除已经安装的port及其依赖
make deinstall-depends
重新安装port
make reinstall
搜索port
make search key=keyword
make search name=nameword
指定port安装目录
make PREFIX=path install
更新port MK
cd /usr/src/share/mk
make install
解决安装时的sed -i 错误
make -DUSE_REINPLACE install
更新port index对照表
cd /usr/ports/
make index
更新index html
cd /usr/ports/
make readmes


# pw groupadd 创建新组

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安装POSTGRESQL

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FreeBSD 7.0-RELEASE-i386

# cd /usr/ports/databases/postgresql83-server && make install clean
# echo 'postgresql_enable="YES"' >> /etc/rc.conf
# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql initdb
# passwd pgsql
# su - pgsql
$ createuser -P -s -e XXXX (创建一个新的超级用户)

安装phpPgAdmin
# cd /usr/ports/databases/phppgadmin && make install clean
# ee /usr/local/etc/apache22/Includes/phppgadmin.conf
Alias /phppgadmin/ "/usr/local/www/phpPgAdmin/"

<Directory "/usr/local/www/phpPgAdmin/">
Options none
AllowOverride Limit

Order Deny,Allow
Deny from all
#Allow from 127.0.0.1 .example.com
Allow from 127.0.0.1 192.168
#Allow from all
</Directory>
# ee /usr/local/www/phpPgAdmin/conf/config.inc.php
$conf['default_lang'] = 'chinese-utf8-zh_CN';

# apachectl restart

http://localhost/phppgadmin/

安装过程错误解决:
如果先安装了KDE3或者其他软件,再安装postgresql83可能会提示冲突终止安装,比如提示postgresql81-client冲突.
# cd /usr/ports/databases/postgresql81-client && make deinstall
卸载postgresql81-client再重新安装
如果有安装PHP5还要重新安装pgsql.so和pdo_pgsql.so
# cd /usr/ports/databases/php5-pgsql && make deinstall
# cd /usr/ports/lang/php5-extensions && make reinstall clean FORCE_PKG_REGISTER=YES

重启PGSQL
$ pg_ctl restart -D /usr/local/pgsql/data/
重载配置文件
$pg_ctl reload -D /usr/local/pgsql/data/

远程登录
postgresql.conf
listen_addresses = '*'
pg_hba.conf
hostssl all all 192.168.0.1/24 md5
hostssl all all 12.12.151.15/32 md5

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安装FreeBSD

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FreeBSD 7.0-RELEASE-i386

CD安装:7.0-RELEASE-i386-disc1.iso

Country Selection --> China
System Console Keymap --> USA ISO
FreeBSD/i386 7.0-RELEASE - Sysinstall Main Menu
--> Custom
  3. Partition 选择安装分区,多个硬盘要选择硬盘
    D 删除选择的分区
    A 自动分区,注意如果硬盘上有其他系统请注意!
    C 在选择的分区上创建FreeBSD
    Q 完成
    Install Boot Manager for drive 完成后要求选择启动
      Bootmgr 选择启动
      Standand 从FreeBSD启动
  4. Label 分区标记
    A 自动
    Q 完成
  5. Distributions 选择安装组件
    base
    kernels
    dict
    doc
    info
    man
    catman
    proflibs
    src >> All
    ports
    local
    需要桌面的再选择X.org
  6. Media 选择安装媒介
  7. Commit 开始安装
-->Configuration
  Networking
    --> Interfaces (选网卡,不选IPv6,选DHCP
    --> sshd
  Root Password
  Time Zone
退出安装,重启

安装后:
# ee /etc/portsnap.conf
SERVERNAME=portsnap.tw.FreeBSD.org
# portsnap fetch update
# portsnap extract
第一次使用可以 portsnap fetch extract
以后使用可以 portsnap fetch update
如果写在cron可以用 portsnap cron update
# ee /root/.cshrc
setenv EDITOR ee
set prompt = "%B%n@%m[%/]# "
%B(粗體字)
%n(UserName)
%m(HostName)
%/(目前所在的路徑)
# ee /etc/csh.cshrc
set prompt = "%B%n@%m[%/]% "
# source /etc/csh.cshrc
# source ~/.cshrc
# adduser

# ee /etc/make.conf
MASTER_SITE_BACKUP?=\
ftp://ftp.cn.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/${DIST_SUBDIR}/\
ftp://ftp.tw.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/${DIST_SUBDIR}/\
ftp://ftp.jp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/${DIST_SUBDIR}/
MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE?=${MASTER_SITE_BACKUP}

绑IP
# ee /etc/rc.conf
ifconfig_rl0="inet X.X.X.X netmask 255.255.255.0" //IP地址
defaultrouter="X.X.X.X" //网关地址
hostname="mywebsite.com"
# ee /etc/resolv.conf
search mywebsite.com
nameserver 218.85.157.99 //DNS地址

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安装Apache2.2

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FreeBSD 7.0-RELEASE-i386

# cd /usr/ports/www/apache22 && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/www/awstats && make install clean 安装awstats的过程
# cd /usr/ports/sysutils/cronolog && make install clean

# ee /usr/local/etc/apache22/httpd.conf
Line 143: Set Administrator's email address
Line 152: Uncomment, set machine.name.com for the ServerName
Line 205: Options All,AllowOverride All (.htaccess)
Line 323: For cgi-bin, Options FollowSymLinks ExecCGI
配置cronolog:
Line236: ErrorLog "|/usr/local/sbin/cronolog /var/log/apache/www.mysite.com/%Y%m/httpd-error_%Y%m%d.log"
Line271: CustomLog "|/usr/local/sbin/cronolog /var/log/apache/www.mysite.com/%Y%m/httpd-access_%Y%m%d.log" combined
# mkdir -m 777 /var/log/apache
# mkdir -m 777 /var/log/apache/www.mysite.com
# echo 'apache22_enable="YES"' >> /etc/rc.conf
# echo 'apache22ssl_enable="YES"' >> /etc/rc.conf

# apachectl configtest
# apachectl start

安装过程错误解决:
先安装Xorg和KDE后再安装Apache22,可能会出现安装错误提示:
===> Installing for apache-2.2.9

===> apache-2.2.9 conflicts with installed package(s):
apr-db42-1.2.8_2

They install files into the same place.
Please remove them first with pkg_delete(1).
*** Error code 1

Stop in /usr/ports/www/apache22.
*** Error code 1

Stop in /usr/ports/www/apache22.
解决方法如下:
# cd /usr/ports/www/apache22
# make config
选择 APR_FROM_PORTS (第一个)
# make install clean


启动错误解决:
No such file or directory: Failed to enable the 'httpready' Accept Filter
# echo 'accf_data_load="YES"' >> /etc/rc.conf
# echo 'accf_http_load="YES"' >> /etc/rc.conf
mod_unique_id: unable to find IPv4 address of "#########" on Failed
关闭mod_unique_id.so
#LoadModule unique_id_module libexec/apache22/mod_unique_id.so

虚拟主机
# ee /usr/local/etc/apache22/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf
NameVirtualHost *:80

<virtualhost *:80>
ServerAdmin webmaster@mywebsite.org
DocumentRoot "/usr/local/www/apache22/data"
ServerName mywebsite.org
ErrorLog "|/usr/local/sbin/cronolog /var/log/apache/mywebsite.org/%Y%m/httpd-error_%Y%m%d.log"
CustomLog "|/usr/local/sbin/cronolog /var/log/apache/mywebsite.org/%Y%m/httpd-access_%Y%m%d.log" combined
Redirect 301 / http://www.mywebsite.com/
</virtualhost>

<virtualhost *:80>
ServerAdmin webmaster@mywebsite.com
DocumentRoot "/usr/local/www/apache22/data/mywebsite.com"
ServerName www.mywebsite.com
ServerAlias *.mywebsite.com
#ErrorLog "/var/log/dummy-host.example.com-error_log"
#CustomLog "/var/log/dummy-host.example.com-access_log" common
ErrorLog "|/usr/local/sbin/cronolog /var/log/apache/mywebsite.com/%Y%m/httpd-error_%Y%m%d.log"
CustomLog "|/usr/local/sbin/cronolog /var/log/apache/mywebsite.com/%Y%m/httpd-access_%Y%m%d.log" combined
</virtualhost>

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Mr Wang

王炜,现在福建泉州从事 B2C 电子商务。爱好编程,业余时间在 FreeBSD / Apache / PHP / PostgerSQL 平台开发 B/S 架构的免费软件。

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